Are microorganisms metabolically active in glacier ice? To address this exciting question, the research team traveled to the McMurdo Dry Valleys – one of the harshest environments on Earth – to study the biology, geology, and chemistry of basal ice – the dynamic layer of ice closest to the bedrock at the base of a glacier. The team used a tunnel cut into the side of Taylor Glacier to reach the basal ice layer. Data collected from field measurements and laboratory experiments helped researchers understand the connections between available nutrients, geochemical properties, and gas composition. This information helped determine if evidence for metabolism of microorganisms living in the ice could be found, and to link this to the types of cells present.
In addition, the research team investigated the similarities and differences among microorganisms in different types of ice within the basal ice zone. Some layers in the basal ice zone are clear and have little sediment. Other layers have high concentrations of debris. The basal ice zones of polar glaciers show similarities with the layered deposits evident in images of the northern ice cap on Mars. The findings from this project may be of interest to scientists studying potential habitats for microbial life on Mars and on the survival in of microorganisms in ice because the frozen environments in Antarctica and Mars may have many similarities.
The team camped on the shore of Lake Bonney, a permanently frozen saline lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The McMurdo Dry Valleys are located on the western coast of McMurdo Sound (77°00'S 162°52'E) and form the largest relatively ice-free area (approximately 4,800 square kilometers) on the continent. The perennially ice-covered lakes, frozen alpine glaciers, and extensive areas of exposed soil and permafrost within the McMurdo Dry Valleys are subject to low temperatures, limited snowfall, and salt accumulation. Lake Bonney is also the terminus of Taylor Glacier, where the team conducted fieldwork in an ice tunnel they carved using chainsaws.
Lindsay Knippenberg is a science teacher at South Lake High School north of Detroit, Michigan where one of her primary goals is to get her students involved in the community. She has bachelor’s degree in biological sciences from Michigan State University, and a master’s degree in environmental science from University of Michigan-Dearborn. As an undergraduate student Ms. Knippenberg participated in a research experience for undergraduates (REU) studying harbor seals in Glacier Bay, Alaska. Since that experience, glaciers and the organisms that live in cold climates have fascinated her.
Even though Ms. Knippenberg lives in the city, she loves to get away and reconnect with nature by hiking, camping, snowshoeing, and kayaking. She also enjoys photography, attending Detroit Tigers games, traveling with her husband, and taking her dog Yoda for walks. She hopes that through her experiences with PolarTREC, she will inspire her students to pursue careers within the field of science and also inspire them to step outside of their comfort zones and not be afraid to take risks and have new experiences.
Mark Skidmore is an assistant professor of geology at Montana State University. Dr. Skidmore’s field research takes him to glaciers in Antarctica, the Swiss Alps, Alaska, the Yukon, Iceland, and Washington. He also conducts low temperature laboratory studies of microbial activity at near freezing temperatures. His current research focuses on the biogeochemical cycling and geomicrobiology of glacier systems and biogeochemical processes associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration.