Happy Easter

Did you know the Easter Bunny visits Antarctica?

Easter treats
Did you know the Easter Bunny visits Antarctica? I found this on my cabin door Easter morning.

First Sea Ice

We’re in the ice! We saw our first sea ice about 3pm on April 4th our
time, just a few hours after I submitted yesterday’s blog.
Congratulations to Diana Rankin, who had the closest guess!

First sea ice selfie
Dominique Richardson with (some of the) first sea ice spooted on the expedition.

We actually saw icebergs first, before getting to the sea ice. After
seeing the first few bits of sea ice it wasn't long until we were

Sea ice cover
Sea ice on the southern ocean.

The water is nice and calm here and we’re moving pretty slowly to
navigate through the ice. When we break through large pieces you can
hear and feel the ice hit and scrape its way slowly along the sides of
the ship.

Bow ice
The bow camera showing the ship moving through sea ice.

Let’s take a closer look at Sea Ice

Closer look at sea ice
Questions submitted from Forrest, 2nd grade.

Forrest, 2nd grade, would like to take a closer look at sea ice.
* How cold is sea ice compared to fresh water ice?
* How cold is sea ice compared to the southern ocean?

Sea iceThere are terms for different types of ice. Shorefast ice forms along coasts and is attached to land. Pack ice is ice floating in open water. Multiyear ice is ice that has survived at least 1 summer. First year ice is ice that has not yet survived a melting season. is frozen seawater that floats on the surface of the ocean,
moving with currents and wind.

Because of winds, currents and temperature changes, sea ice is very
dynamic and there are many different sea ice types. Here is a chart from
the Tasmania Museum of Art that explains a just a few, basic types of
sea ice.

Sea ice formation chart
Sea ice formation explained by the Tasmanian Museum of Art.

Sea iceThere are terms for different types of ice. Shorefast ice forms along coasts and is attached to land. Pack ice is ice floating in open water. Multiyear ice is ice that has survived at least 1 summer. First year ice is ice that has not yet survived a melting season. forms when the ocean’s surface layer cools to the sea ice
freezing point (the surrounding water is usually just above the freezing
point, but can be warmer depending on the location). Since sea ice forms
from ocean water instead of fresh water, it forms at a slightly colder
temperature--29°F-- than freshwater ice—32°F. As sea ice forms a lot of
salt is expelled out of the ice crystals, so sea ice is a little less
salty than the surrounding ocean. However it is still saltier than fresh
water ice, snow, and icebergs (which are made of fresh water).

Don’t confuse sea ice with icebergs! While sea ice is frozen ocean
water, icebergs are large pieces of fresh water ice that have broken
off glaciers or ice shelves and are floating free in the ocean.

Icebergs vs. sea ice
Don't confuse icebergs with sea ice. Icebergs are freshwater ice, while sea ice forms from salty ocean water.

Some sea ice, permanently attached to the coast (called fast ice), can
be up to 120 feet thick. Newly forming sea ice can be just a thin layer
on the surface of the ocean. Most of the sea ice we will be traveling
through is only 1-6 feet thick. By contrast, Antarctic icebergs are
often more than 1,300 feet thick!

Why is sea ice growing?

So if Antarctic ice sheets are melting, why is Antarctic sea ice area
at a high since 1978 (when satellite observations began)? By the way, if
you didn’t know, Antarctic sea ice area is at a high. It seems like this
would be at odds with what we think should happen in a warming climate.
However, it is just what climate scientists expect as a result of the
melting land ice and changing weather patterns caused by climate change.

We hear about how the Arctic (North Pole area) is rapidly losing the
thick sea ice that has persisted over multiple years. We might expect
the same in the Southern Ocean, but conditions at each of the poles are
very different. The Arctic has no central continental ice, like what
exists in Antarctica. In Antarctica, sea ice forms outward from the ice
on the continent, growing and melting as the seasons change. The
continental ice is fresh water ice that, as it melts, adds fresh water
to the ocean. Increased fresh water input from mantling continental ice
sheets, and increased precipitation, can make surface ocean water less
salty, increasing the freezing point and making it easier for sea ice to
form. With greater input of fresh water, sea ice can form at and survive
relatively warmer temperatures.

Also, remember that sea ice is very dynamic and can be pushed about the
ocean’s surface by winds. Strong katabatic winds also blow off the
continent pushing sea ice outward. Increased winds—intensified by
changing climate – push sea ice northward, increasing the area covered
by the ice. As sea ice grows outward from the continent, it can cover a
large area without necessarily being very thick—the volume of thin ice
covering a wider area can be, overall, less ice than the volume of thick
ice in a smaller area. So as climate change causes Antarctic ice sheets
to melt, increased fresh water makes it easier for sea ice to form and
stronger winds—also influenced by changing climate--pushing sea ice
outward, increasing the sea ice cover in Antarctica.

Check out an interview about the increase in Antarctic sea ice with Dr. Guy Williams, one of the scientists on board:

Try it at home

Freezing point depression: why ocean water freezes at a colder
temperature than fresh water.
Get a bowl of ice water, measure the temperature.
Add a cup of rock salt to the bowl of ice water and re-measure the
What did adding salt do to the temperature of the ice water? Which was
colder: the salt water or the fresh water?

Notes from the Scientists

Forrest’s questions have slightly more complicated answers that it
would seem. Thankfully, I’m living and working with two sea ice experts
while on the ship. So I deferred the more complicated components of the
questions to them. Here is what Dr. Alex Fraser and Dr. Guy Williams
(both of whom we’ll learn more soon) had to say regarding Forrest’s
Dr. Williams: If I may, I will probably re-phrase Forrest’s
questions… How does sea ice differ from lake ice that forms over fresh
The key difference is in the freezing temperature of sea ice vs. lake
ice, or the temperature at which it changes from liquid to solid, as
well as the way the water behaves as it approaches the freezing point.
Fresh water freezes at 0 degree C. When most things cool, they shrink
and their density increases. Denser things will sink below less dense
things. For example – cold air sinks – just try opening the fridge with
no shoes on to test that. As fresh water cools, it also does this,
until it reaches 4 degree C, and something strange happens – it starts
to expand as it cools to zero. Because it is expanding, the
near-freezing fresh water wants to stay at the surface and continue
losing heat until it freezes. When it freezes, the ice 'expands' and it
floats on the surface, less dense than the water around it. If water
behaved like other materials, i.e. continued to gain density, then ice
would sink to the bottom of the lake and the lake would freeze from the
bottom up.

Salt water is slightly different – for starters its freezing point is
often less than 0. In the region of Antarctica we are going to it is
between -1.8 to -1.9 degree C. Also, the change from contraction to
expansion doesn't occur at 4 degrees – it continues to contract and so
the surface of the ocean becomes mixed as near-freezing water at the
surface 'sinks'. So you end up with a thicker layer of near-freezing
water, compared to the lake, before freezing can occur and sea-ice
forms. Of course, once it forms, it expands and stays at the surface.
An interesting thing happens to the salt in the salt water as it
freezes, but that will have to wait until next time!
Hope that helps! We can leave 'brine-rejection' until it is time to
talk about the polynyas and dense shelf water formation.

Dr. Fraser: Fresh water ice forms at 0 degrees Celsius. The
temperature of sea ice formation varies with the salinity of the surface
water, but generally forms at ~-1.8 degrees Celsius. As [Dr. Williams]
said, sea ice is essentially frozen Southern Ocean. As you move south,
the Southern Ocean cools until it reaches ~-1.8 [degrees Celsius] and
then it freezes into sea ice. The top of the sea ice will be at the
temperature of the atmosphere and the bottom of the sea ice will be at
the temperature of the southern ocean beneath it. The warmest sea ice
can possibly be is ~-1.8 [degrees Celsius]. There is no limit to how
cold it can be. On the other hand, the warmest lake (fresh) ice can be
is 0 C, and again there's no limit to how cold it can be. Generally the
top of the sea or lake ice is the same temperature as the atmosphere
(i.e., can be as cold as -30 C, or sometimes even colder) and the bottom
is the same temperature as the ocean or lake it is in. This can create a
temperature gradient across the ice. Depth of the ice and insulating
factors, like snow, can change this temperature profile, but we can talk
about that another time!

Weather Summary
17 F


Peggy McNeal

Hi Dominique!What interesting explanations about the formation of sea ice. Thank you! I'm looking forward to reading more about polynyas. Sounds like a fascinating expedition. Stay warm!

Dominique Richardson

Hi Peggy! I've learned so much about sea ice and polynyas on this expedition. It's great having the sea ice and oceanography experts
around to answer all the questions I have. We should hopefully be
reaching a polynya in the next few days and I'll get into more detail
about them then (especially once I have some good pictures of one too).

Marie Kawabe

Hi, Dominique.Learning about the Antarctic and current Antarctic research from your journal is a pleasure.
The explanations concerning ice formation and the equipment being used are very interesting.
Thank you.

Dominique Richardson

So glad you are following the journal! We've got plenty more fun information on equipment, ice features and even animals to come!